Obesity As A Disorder

993 words | 4 page(s)

Obesity is a complex disorder that occurs when the body has an excess amount of fat. The prevalence of obesity has continued to be a healthcare concern nationally. Statistics indicate that the prevalence of obesity is 35% as per surveys conducted in 2016. The condition increases the risk of developing severe conditions such as heart diseases, diabetes, and high blood pressure. The good news is that even the modest weight loss can improve the health of a person suffering from the disease and prevent secondary complications associated with it. From the family history analysis, the patient suffers from obesity. The condition can be mitigated through body exercise, a modifiable risk factor. This paper will give an overview of the condition and suggest an evidence based intervention for its prevention.

Obesity occurs when the body accumulates excess amounts of fats. A person with a body mass index of 30 and above is classified as obese. Other risk factors associated with the condition include poor eating diets, having a sedentary lifestyle, inconsistent sleep, and genetics. Having a diet rich in high calorie content foods is associated with increased deposition of body fat under the tissues. However, the condition is exacerbated when an individual fails to exercise to burn the excess body fats. Equally, inadequate or inconsistent sleep is associated with the condition. When there is an intermittent sleep pattern, there are changes in the body hormonal system that can influence carving for specific high-calorie content foods.

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Genetics is another risk factor for obesity. Genetics affects how the body processes food into energy and how the fat is stored. For instance, occurrence of monogenic types of obesity indicates that the disease can be caused by genetic mutations. However, the linkage is a bit nuanced as only 78 cases have been confirmed worldwide to have been caused by mutations of the genes. Other studies have indicated that complex sequential variations in genes is highly associated with the condition, and 56 distinct types of genes have been shown to be associated with the condition (Goodarzi, 2018). Equally, Goodarzi (2018) reports that some people have a genetic predisposition that may cause obesity. Obesity susceptibly genes and the combination of obesogenic involvement and a genetic predisposing inescapably results in the development of the condition. The family of the patient have a history of obesity, as such, condition might have been inherited from his first degree relatives. The patient has also lived a sedentary lifestyle which might have exacerbated their situation.

Evidence Based Intervention
Physical Activity
Regular physical activity has been shown to reduce the rates of obesity and its associated disorders. For instance, the U.S. Public Health System and the ACSM often recommend approximately 30 minutes of daily moderate-intensity physical activity (Stephens, Cobiac, & Veerman, 2014). Walking daily for 30 minutes has been shown to reduce the development of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, and to consequentially reduce the prevalence of conditions such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, and insulin resistance. More evidence now indicates that regular physical activity (20 minutes daily) has the capability of reducing the rate of obesity by approximately 34% in individuals (Stephens, Cobiac, & Veerman, 2014). The causative link between obesity and physical activity is that the condition results in energy imbalance. Only through physical activity can an individual shed off excess fats. A number of factors, such as age, body size, and genes influence the amount of fats an individual can burn per day.

For the patient, a consistent and regular exercise schedule will be recommended:
Short term goals
To reduce his body weight by 5% for the next 3 months

Long Term Goals
To reduce his body weight by approximately 30%, classified as normal body range. The long term objective can achieved after approximately 5 years through which the individual will be advised to undergo at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise. Depending on the predisposing factors and health condition, the type of exercises can be different. For instance, some days, the individual will be advised to walk, go to the gym, or simply to run. The project assumes that consistent physical activity schedule with even lower their chances of developing other life-threatening conditions. For instance, the analysis indicated that the person is suffering from type 2 diabetes. Since obesity is a risk factor for the condition, the project assumes that by reducing weight, the individual will further mitigate stressors associated with DM2.

The success of the program will depend on its implementation. The individual will be advised to take daily evening walks around their home. However, when conditions do not allow for walking, the individual can be advised to jump or jog indoors for about 20 minus daily. In the evenings when the weather is favorable, the individual can jump indoors for 15 minutes, and then talk daily walks for 30 minutes. A pedometer will be provided to track their daily physical activity and walks, and recommendations will be given based on the results. As well, previous studies have shown the importance of providing incentives (DiPietro & Stachenfeld, 2017). After a defined period, and if specific monthly targets will be achieved, the individual will be given some incentives to promote their efforts.

The BMI and body weight of the patient will be evaluated after 1 month of physical activity, incase there will be no improvements, intense physical activity can be recommended.

Obesity continues to be a global epidemic. There are various risk factors that influence the development of the condition. However, modifiable risk factors such excising can reduce the development of the condition and its associated disorders.

  • DiPietro, L., & Stachenfeld, N. S. (2017). Exercise treatment of obesity. In Endotext [Internet]. MDText. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK278961/
  • Goodarzi, M. O. (2018). Genetics of obesity: What genetic association studies have taught us about the biology of obesity and its complications? The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, 6(3), 223-236. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2213-8587
  • Stephens, S. K., Cobiac, L. J., & Veerman, J. L. (2014). Improving diet and physical activity to reduce population prevalence of overweight and obesity: An overview of current evidence. Preventive medicine, 62, 167-178. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2014.02.008

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